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The claim that Muhammad’s wars were defensive is just a baseless and empty claim because Muhammad wars were the main source of income for expanding his military power .”For sure the booty which could be used to supplement future campaigns could be major factor to start the war” [ Veccia Vaglieri, L. "Khaybar”, Encyclopaedia of Islam ] this fact is so clear that Muslims are ashamed of their own role model, then they have fabricated some details about Muhammad’s wars that you can not even find in any history book !!!!
Here I just analyze few wars that have been claimed to be defensive . Basically there were many motives and reasons behind Muhammad’s wars .Here are some of them:
According to Quran Allah has ordered Muslims to expand their territory . Allah confirms and makes the believers owner of the land, property and belongings of the Kuffar, using his power blessing Muslims and assist them in entering and taking any land . So invading all lands is an indispensable requirement of Islam and once a land is conquered and taken for Allah it should never be returned to Kuffar (non believers).
=() Quran33:27″ وَأَوْرَثَكُمْ أَرْضَهُمْ وَدِيَارَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُمْ وَأَرْضًا لَمْ تَطَئُوهَا ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرًا ” Sahih International: And He caused you to inherit their land and their homes and their properties and a land which you have not trodden. And ever is Allah , over all things, competent.
=() Quran 13:41 “أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّا نَأْتِي الْأَرْضَ نَنْقُصُهَا مِنْ أَطْرَافِهَا ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَحْكُمُ لَا مُعَقِّبَ لِحُكْمِهِ ۚ وَهُوَ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ Mohsin Khan: See they not that We gradually reduce the land (of disbelievers, by giving it to the believers, in war victories) from its outlying borders. And Allah judges, there is none to put back His Judgement and He is Swift at reckoning.
=() Quran 21:44 ” بَلْ مَتَّعْنَا هَٰؤُلَاءِ وَآبَاءَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ طَالَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْعُمُرُ ۗ أَفَلَا يَرَوْنَ أَنَّا نَأْتِي الْأَرْضَ نَنْقُصُهَا مِنْ أَطْرَافِهَا ۚ أَفَهُمُ الْغَالِبُونَ ” Abdel Haleem :We have allowed these sinners and their forefathers to enjoy life for a long time. But do they not see how We are shrinking their borders? Is it they who will prevail?
[M[Muhammad Sarwar: We have been providing these men and their fathers with the means of enjoyment for a long time. Have they not ever considered that We populated the earth and then caused many of the inhabitants to pass away? Can they have any success (in their wickedness)?]r> =() Quran 24:55 ” وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ وَلَيُمَكِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ دِينَهُمُ الَّذِي ارْتَضَىٰ لَهُمْ وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ خَوْفِهِمْ أَمْنًا ۚ يَعْبُدُونَنِي لَا يُشْرِكُونَ بِي شَيْئًا ۚ وَمَنْ كَفَرَ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ ” Shakir: Allah has promised to those of you who believe and do good that He will most certainly make them rulers in the earth as He made rulers those before them, and that He will most certainly establish for them their religion which He has chosen for them, and that He will most certainly, after their fear, give them security in exchange; they shall serve Me, not associating aught with Me; and whoever is ungrateful after this, these it is who are the. transgressors.
According to these verses from dawn of Islam till now expansion all over the world was one of the motives behind Muhammad’s aggression and invasion , that makes Muhammad’s wars offensive.
((())) Starting war with the people who have no knowledge of war is not part of defensive war:
=() “… there was the affair of B. Qaynuqa so Muhammad assembled the Jews in their market and warned them of vengeance. They told Muhammad that he should not be deceived by the fact that he had won a battle against people who had no knowledge of war and that if Muhammad fought them he would find that they were real men! Muhammad then received a revelation about them: “Say to those who disbelieve: you will be vanquished and gathered to hell…” (Ibn Ishaq p. 363)[.[.Ibn Ishaq. The Life of Muhammad. New York : Oxford University Press, 1955, 2006]r> HOW THE WAR AGAINST PEOPLE WHO DO NOT KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT WAR CAN BE DEFENSIVE WAR?
((())) SUDDEN ATTACK( غزوه ) and RAIDING CARAVAN is part of aggressive warfare not defensive war . “The Caravan raids” refer to a series of raids that Muhammad and his followers committed ,raids were offensive and designed to collect goods of caravans (goods such as money,food,cloth,precious metals, arms,women, slaves,animals etc…. ) [ [ Muhammad: prophet and statesman. Oxford University Press, 1974. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-19-881078-0. ]r> Here is a hadith that shed light on many issues, just pay very close attention , Bukhari explains it well:
=() al-Bukhari Book of Freeing Slaves #717/al-Bukhari 2541/Sahih al-Bukhari Vol. 3, Book 46, Hadith 717/ Sahih al-Bukhari Vol. 3, Book of Freeing Slaves, Hadith 717
Narrated Ibn Aun:
I wrote a letter to Nafi and Nafi wrote in reply to my letter that the Prophet had suddenly attacked Bani Mustaliq without warning while they were heedless and their cattle were being watered at the places of water. Their fighting men were killed and their women and children were taken as captives;
the Prophet got Juwairiya on that day. Nafi said that Ibn ‘Umar had told him the above narration and that Ibn ‘Umar was in that army.”
=() Muhammad stayed in Medina while sending out several other raiding parties (Ibn Ishaq p.445-449).DEFENSIVE WAR?
Of course at the end of each raid and sudden attack there was some benefits such as women,slaves,wealth,and spoils of war . At the beginning  looked like Muhammad felt bad about sudden attack but when he saw the financial gains suddenly that changed everything:
=() One day Muhammad sent Abdullah b. Jahsh and eight other Muslims with orders to “Lie in wait for Quraysh and find out for us what they are doing….” A Quraysh caravan came by and the Muslim raiders “decided to kill as many as they could of them and take what they had.” When they returned to Muhammad he rebuked them for fighting during the sacred month. Muhammad, however, later received a revelation relieving them “of their anxiety” in the matter. Muhammad took one-fifth of the booty and rewarded the raiders out of what was left over (Ibn Ishaq p.288).
=() . Muhammad then sent a raiding party led by Zayd to meet one of the caravans which was transporting a large amount of silver. The men of the caravan got away, but Zayd captured what they were carrying and brought the spoil to Muhammad (Ibn Ishaq p.364).
=() Muhammad then heard that a large caravan of Quraysh loaded with money and merchandise was coming from Syria led by Abu Sufyan b. Harb. Muhammad ordered the Muslims to attack the caravan, an attack which took place near the water of Badr. Muhammad encouraged his men saying that all those fighting “with steadfast courage advancing not retreating” would be rewarded with paradise if killed in the battle. When Muhammad saw them coming he cried, “O God, here come the Quraysh in their vanity and pride contending with Thee and calling Thy apostle a liar…Destroy them this morning!” Muhammad’s men routed their foe, killed many of their chiefs, and captured many of their nobles in this battle of Badr (289-294)
=() “Muhammad forced the local populace to pay him tribute after ambushing and killing local civilians to assert his authority “(Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 903).
Some believe that Muhammad at the end of his life started some wars just to spread Islam, BUT since he already had laid the plan and instruction for confiscation and distribution of war booties that proved something else .This hadith explains it well :
=() Muslim Book of Jihad and Expedition #4346/Muslim 1756/Sahih Muslim Vol. 4, Book 19, Hadith 4346/Sahih Muslim Vol. 4, Book of Jihad and Expedition, Hadith 4346
It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) said: If you come to a township (which has surrendered without a formal war) and stay therein, you have a share (that will be in the form of an award) in (the properties obtained from) it. If a township disobeys Allah and His Messenger (and actually fights against the Muslims) one-fifth of the booty seized therefrom is for Allah and His Apostle and the rest is for you.
As we see even those people who were not fighting and surrendered they were subjugated anyway, and their property seized. The only distinguishing factor is the extent of Muslim entitlement following the victory.
=() One of the best examples of Muhammad’s aggression,greed for wealth and gaining respect was his attack on the peaceful sleepy community of Khaybar. Oasis of Khaybar was located about 150 KM north of Medina.Residence were mainly farmers ,skilled workers, business people and leaders of armaments and weaponry industry such as swords, shields, lances,spears,etc… and as manufacturers they had to have some weapons in stock for future sale[ [ Veccia Vaglieri, L. "Khaybar”, Encyclopaedia of Islam ]They never planned to attack Muslims or start any war, and they were caught by surprize:
“We met the workers of Khaybar coming out in the morning with their spades and baskets. When they saw the apostle and the army they cried, “Muhammad with his force,” and turned tail and fled… The apostle seized the property piece by piece… ” (Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 757)
“When the apostle raided a people he waited until the morning. If he heard a call to prayer he held back; if he did not hear it he attacked. We came to Khaybar by night, and the apostle passed the night there; and when morning came he did not hear the call to prayer, so he rode and we rode with him. (Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 757)does this sound like defensive war?
Amazingly even Muhammad’s top commander ,his son in law “Ali” in charge of military did not know why they were going to war:
“Allah’s Messenger called Ali [and[and said]Proceed on and do not look about until Allah grants you victory,” and Ali went a bit and then halted and did not look about and then said in a loud voice: “Allah’s Messenger, on what issue should I fight with the people?” Thereupon he (the Prophet) said: ”Fight with them until they bear testimony to the fact that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his Messenger…” [ Mu[ Muslim Book of the Merits of the Companions #5917/Muslim 2405/Sahih Muslim Vol. 6, Book 31, Hadith 5917/Sahih Muslim Vol. 6, Book of the Merits of the Companions, Hadith 5917 ] If Muslims were under attack how come the head of military did not know that?Why Muhammad did not say anything to his top commander that they are under attack ? .This piece of document proves that the residents of Khaybar never had any intention to attack Muhammad and Muslims , it was  Muhammad who initiated the offensive war.
Muhammad and his thugs easily captured Khaybar, and divided the loot.He captured community’s treasurer and gave orders to al-Zubayr bin al-Awwam, “Torture him until you extract what he has.” So he kindled a fire with flint and steel on his chest until he was nearly dead. Then the apostle delivered him to Muhammad bin Maslama and he struck off his head.”[Ibn[Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 764 ] Muhammad then took the man’s widow, Saffiya, as his wife after trading two other captured women to one of his lieutenants (Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 758 / 517) . you can read the whole story here: al-Bukhari Book of Prayer (Salat) #367/ al-Bukhari 371/Sahih al-Bukhari Vol. 1, Book 8, Hadith 367/Sahih al-Bukhari Vol. 1, Book of Prayer (Salat), Hadith 367]
Jews of Khaybar finally surrendered ,survivors were allowed to live there but pay half their products to Muslims. they lived for few more years and at the end they were  expelled by Umar .Muslims enforced ” jizya ” upon them and confiscated the land belonging to non-Muslims into the collective property of the Muslim community.
Muhammad  did the same thing after the Battle of the Trench in AD 627, he decapitates 700( up to 900 according to some narrators ) male Jews of the Qurayzah tribe, enslaves women and children, though he keeps a beautiful Jewess for himself, and confiscates all of their property, which was considerable (Quran 33:26-27).
Slavery used to be one of the major sources of income for Muhammad,” Muhammad had many male and female slaves. He used to buy and sell them, but he purchased more slaves then he sold. He once sold one black slave for two. His purchases of slaves were more than he sold.”[Ibn[Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya "Zad al-Ma’ad”, part 1, p160]that was the main reason that he never abolished slavery.All apologies have to say about slavery in Islam is that how Islam modified slavery with some fair rules!!!
=()Muslim Book of Marriage #3371/Muslim 1438 a/Sahih Muslim Vol. 3, Book 8, Hadith 3371/Sahih Muslim Vol. 3, Book of Marriage, Hadith 3371
“….We went out with Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) on the expedition to the Bi’l-Mustaliq and took captive some excellent Arab women;
and we desired them, for we were suffering from the absence of our wives, (but at the same time) we also desired ransom for them. So we decided to have sexual intercourse with them but by observing ‘azl (Withdrawing the male sexual organ before emission of semen to avoid-conception). But we said: We are doing an act whereas Allah’s Messenger is amongst us;
why not ask him? So we asked Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him), and he said: It does not matter if you do not do it, for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of Resurrection will be born.”
[ Ibn [ Ibn Ishaq / Hisham 791, 757, 200,875 ]we see here that rape was done with the permission and knowledge of Muhammad. IS THIS PART OF DEFENSIVE WAR?
=() Muhammad then divided the booty including the captives equally among the Muslims (307). As Muhammad ordered one of the captives to be killed the captive pleaded, “Who will look after my children?” “Hell,” replied Muhammad, and the man was executed (308). Muhammad then divided the prisoners among his companions, telling them to treat them well (309).
((())) REVENGE
Revenge was one of the motives for some of Muhammad’s wars.
Six months after defeat of Qurayzah” Muhammad started his war against ” Abu Lihyan ” tribe to avenge the killing of his companions ” Khubaib and Zaid bin Ad Dathna” at the well of “al Raji”. But when Muhammad army arrived there people were not prepared for war and saved themselves only by fleeing into the hills (Hisham 718). Ibn Ishaq 486[Ibn I[Ibn Ishaq. The Life of Muhammad. New York : Oxford University Press, 1955, 2006.)
=() Muhammad and his adopted son, Zayd ibn Harithah went to Ta’if to invite the people to Islam. Three chiefs of the local tribes welcomed him and listened to him.they decided to not accept Islam.[ A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims chapter "Muhammad’s Visit to Ta’if ]rejection , people on the streets started throwing stone at them, they left the town scorned and bleeding.They got protection from non-Muslim man named Mut’im bin ‘Adi .
why Muhammad should get protection from a non-Muslim while there were so many rich and influential Muslims such as: Abu Bakr , Uthman ibn Affan or Umar?why Muslims did not go to the gate to welcome Muhammad and escort him to his home?Apparently this event showed that Muslims were not that much excited from his return ,Muhammad was not respected and wanted,and no body cared about his saftey.
His defeat in Taif was a great humiliation,and disgrace, to make up this defeat he came up with story of ” Isra’ and Me’raj ” [ ا[ الاسراء والمعراج  ]ace trip and personal visit with Allah.
According to” Ishaq/Hisham 280 & 872:” Muhammad attacked the people of Taif to avenge their rejection of him ”
=() Another war that was not self defense was called” Battle of Mu’tah”[ غزو[ غزوة مؤتة‎‎]d’s first attack to christians.They were not aware of ability of Byzantine military power.
Muhammad send his emissary ( Harith bin Umayr )[ الح[ الحارث بن عمير الأزدي ]tine emperor and invite him to Islam.Harith was executed by An Arab of the Christian tribe of Ghassan ( الغساسنة‎‎‏ ), and son to Shorhail, an emir, who governed Mootah in the name of Heraclius .Muhammad for revenge send an army of 3000[Za’d [Za’d Al-Ma’ad 2/155; Fath Al-Bari 7/511] by Zayd ibn Harithah,Ja far ibn Abī Tālib , and Abd Allah ibn Rawahah,.[Ishaq p[Ishaq p. 534-535]ree were killed, and the Islamic army was routed,[A Resta[A Restatement of History of Islam & Muslims, ISBN 0-9509879-1-3]) “Battle of Tabuk” another offensive war
Muhammad tried to convince people that through this war he wanted to stop Byzantine’s military built up to attack Medina. there were many rumors that Heraclius came up with huge army to attack Muslims[ Rahman[ Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, Saifur (2005), The Sealed Nectar, Darussalam Publications, p. 272 ]ple did not buy it, they did not show any interest to join army and go to war. Even one of the most respected Muslim general “Al-Ahnaf Ibn Qays” who was from an arab tribe of Banu Tamim and was born of two noble parents,he came up with excuse not to go to war of “Tabuk” .According to Ibn Kathir the verse 9:49 in Quran is about him who did not want to participate in Jihad:
[ Saed A[ Saed Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad (29 October 2009). The Meaning And Explanation Of The Glorious Qur’an (Vol 4), Tafsir ibn Kathir. MSA Publication Ltd. p. 107. ISBN 978-1861796509 ][and p.137]afsir[ Tafsir ibn Kathir,On 9:49, Text Version ]ording to him, verse 9:81 and 9:29 were revealed because of “war of Tabuk”:
[Tafsir [Tafsir ibn Kathir,On 9:81, Text Version ][and on 9:29]ally at the end for Muhammad to come up with an army he ended up providing many with gifts.[ Life o[ Life of Mahomet. Kessinger Publishing Co. p. 454. ISBN 978-0766177413 ]ammad marched with an army about 30,000 to “Tabuk” .That was the biggest number of army that he had ever had[ The Se[ The Sealed Nectar, Darussalam Publications, p. 275 ]re ready for war but Byzantines were not at Tabuk ,Muhammad and his army stayed there for a while but Byzantine never came and Muslims ended up to go back home!!! [The Sea[The Sealed Nectar, Darussalam Publications, p. 276 ]nt proved that the whole idea of “Tabuk war” was an ignorant attempt of Muhammad to provoke an aggressive and offensive war .
Some Muslims claim that “Tabuk” war happened because Byzantine was planning to attack Muslims , and that makes it defensive war. But the facts is that documents presented here showed otherwise.Plus ByzantineEmpire was a rich Empire and Arabian tribes did not have anything to cause Byzantine Empire to attack them, specially during the time of that war Arabian penensula was going through tough economic hardship, Here is how Ibn Kathir explained the situation:
“…. They left for that battle during a period of distress. It was a year with little rain, intense heat and scarcity of supplies and water.” Qatadah said, “They went to Ash-Sham during the year of the battle of Tabuk at a time when the heat was intense. Allah knew how hard things were, and they suffered great hardship. We were told that two men used to divide a date between themselves. Some of them would take turns in sucking on a date and drinking water, then give it to another man to suck on. Allah forgave them and allowed them to come back from that battle.” Ibn Jarir reported that Abdullah bin Abbas said that Umar bin Al-Khattab was reminded of the battle of distress (Tabuk) and Umar said, “We went with the Messenger of Allah in the intense heat for Tabuk. We camped at a place in which we were stricken so hard by thirst that we thought that our necks would be severed. One of us used to go out in search of water and did not return until he feared that his neck would be severed. One would slaughter his camel, squeeze its intestines and drink its content, placing whatever was left on his kidney. …..”
Then we see the claim that Byzantines were planning to attack Muslims was just another delusion from mentally sick role model for another offensive war.

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