in the first part of these series of articles we talked about Shia’ Quran and 2 extra verses[ Sura an-Nurain” ( سورة النورين )and “Sura al-Walayah”( سورة الولاية ] that they do not exist in Uthman’s version of Quran.Here we continue with few more version of Qurans:
*Ubay Ibn Kaab ‘s Qur’an:
He was called “Sayidul Qura” (The Master of Reciters) and Umar agreed[ Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 6, p.489 ].Al-Baihaqi reported that Omar Ibn Al-Khattaab prayed them, that Ali taught them to the people, and that people used to recite them before king Al-Malik Ibn Marwaan!! (That is till the Ommiad era.)
His Quran was standard text in Syria. He omitted some words from Surah 4:101 , some differences in 4:143/2:204/17:16 / 5:48…from Uthman’s Quran.
He had 116 surahs in his Quran, including two extra short surahs, al-Hafd ,the Haste( with six verses ), and al-Khal'(with three verses )
[ Bearman, Bianquis, Bosworth, van Donzel, Heinrichs, eds. (2012). “al-Kur’an”. Encyclopedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online. ]
[al-Suyuti , Tafseer Dur al-Manthur, Volume 4 page 421]
[Nawawi, al-adhkar, Cairo, 1955, pp. 57–8 ]
These surahs were also included in the texts of Ibn Abbas and Abu Musa. ( citing al-Suyuti’s al-Itqan, pp. 152-153) Here are these verses:
“Sura al- Khal”(سوره الخلع)”The Separation” and “sura al-Hafd”( سوره الحفد ) or “The Haste” :
1)Sura al- Khal ( سوره الخلع )
” يفجرك مَنْ ونترك ونخلع ولا نكفرك عليك ونثني اللهم إنا نستعينك ونستغفرك ”
It translates as:
” O Allah, we seek your help and ask your forgiveness, and we praise you and we do not disbelieve in you. We separate from and leave who sins against you.”
[ al-Suyuti, Al-Itqan, p.152-153 ]
2)Sura al-Hafd ( سوره الحفد )
“اَللَّهُمَّ إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَلَكَ نُصَلِّئ وَنَسْجُدُ وَإِلَيْكَ نَسْعأئ وَنَحْفِدُ وَنَرْجُو رَحْمَتَكَ وَنَخْشآئ عَذَابَكَ إِنَّ عَذَابَكَ بِالكُفَّارِ مُلْحَقٌ ”
It translates as:
“O Allah, we worship You and to You we pray and prostrate and to You we run and hasten to serve You. We hope for Your mercy and we fear Your punishment. Your punishment will certainly reach the disbelievers.”
[ al-Suyuti in his Tafseer Dur al-Manthur, Volume 4 page 421 ]
These 2 verses are like prayers and might not look like most of the Qur’anic verses. But do remember that Sura al-Fatiha, the first sura, is a prayer also. Additionally, the challenge is about the eloquence of expression, not about the exact content, otherwise, each and everthing that is not exactly like the Qur’an can be rejected on the basis that it is not the same. But if one brings the same, then it is called plagiarism.
There was another Ayeh that was questionable but Ubay cleared the problem.
its translation is as follows: ‘If the son of Adam was given a valley full of riches, he would wish a second one, and if he was given two valleys full of riches, he would surely ask for a third one. Nothing will fill the belly of the son of Adam except dust, and Allah is forgiving to him who is repentant.’
This text at times thought to be part of the Quran. However Ubay himself clarifies that sahaba did not consider the above to be part of the Quran.
[Sahih al-Bukhari 6438 / In-book reference: Book 81, Hadith 27
USC-MSA web (English) reference: Vol. 8, Book 76, Hadith 446]
=() Affan ibn Muslim informed us … on the authority of Anas ibn Malik, he on the authority of the Prophet, may Allah bless him; he said: The best reader (of the Qur’an) among my people is Ubayyi ibn Ka’b. (Ibn Sa’d, Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, Vol. 2, p.441)
So clearly Ubay (ra) was clear about what constituted Qur’an and what didn’t.
According to some scholars Ali ibn Abu Talib collected transcript of the Quran, six months after Muhammad’s death, and that was the ﬁrst compilation of the Quran and it was unique version because it was collected in the order that it was sent.[ Leaman, Oliver (2006). “Ali”. The Qur’an: an Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 30–31. ISBN 0-415-32639-7.],[ Esack, Farid (2005). The Qur’an: A User’s Guide. Oxford England: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 978-1851683543.].
Here you can find more info on Ali’s Quran:
=() Abd Khayr reported “…. when he saw people in despair and frustration at the death of the Prophet, he swore that he would not wear his cloak on his back until he had collected the Qur’an. Then he sat in his house and collected the Qur’an. So it was the first mushaf in which the Qur’an had been collected – collected from his heart and this [ mushaf] is with the descendents of Ja‘far ”
=()Hakim Haskani , Shawahid al-tanzil (شَواهِد التَنزیل لِقَواعِد التَفضیل), 26-27.
=() Imam al-Dhahabi( الإمام الذهبي ) Siyar a‘lam al- nubala’(سير أعلام النبلاء), vol. 14, 22 .
=() Abu Nu‘aym(أبـو نـعـيـم الأصـفـهـانـي),Hilyat al-awliya (حلية الأولياء وطبقات الأصفياء ) 4 th edition vol. 1 Beirut: Dar al-kitab
=() Imam al-Dhahabi( الإمام الذهبي ) , Tadhkirat al-huffaz ( تذكرة الحفاظ ) volum2,661.
=() Ibn Nadim (ابوالفرج محمد بن إسحاق النديم) , Al- Fihrist ( الفهرست ), 44.
[ Ibn Nadim’s narrative specifies that Ali completed this task in three days.]
=() Ibn Kathlr, Fadai’l al-Qur’an, 51.
=() Ibn Abl Da’ud, Kitab al-masahif 16.
=() Ibn Abu Dawud Kitab al-masahif, 11-12
=() Al-Ya‘qubi [ Ahmad al-Ya’qubi ] 834 (d. 292 AH) about Ali’s Quran said:”Ali had collected after the death of the Prophet was brought over by him on a camel and it had seven parts. He then gives details of the surahs each part consisted of “and at the end of each part was written the total number of its surahs.”
WAS ALI QUALIFIED TO COLLECT PIECES OF QURAN?
Many great scholars and Islamic characters have talked about the virtues of Imam Ali ,people such as Muhammad’s Companions or Sahaba, the views of Umar b. al-Khattab, the view of Akrama, and the letter of ‘A’isha about Ali,etc…
*The record of Ali in reading, reciting and memorizing Qur’an.
*Ali’s knowledge of the meanings and truths of Qur’an and his unique knowledge of the occasions on which Qur’an was revealed.
*The frequency of occasions on which Quranic verses have been revealed with relation to Imam Ali’s and his virtues.
*An explanation of the hadith according to which 90 cases of the address of “O’ people who have believed” (“Yā ayyuha al-ladhīna āmanū”, : یا أیها الذین آمنوا) in the Qur’an that is directed to Ali.
Apparently when Ali presented his Quran to the community, they refused to acknowledge his copy though it was complete,precise,with interpretation , revelation, abrogating and abrogated verses “… nothing was missing from it, [not even] a letter alif, nor lam…” [ Al-Khu’i, Al-Sayyid (1998). The Prolegomena to the Qur’an. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 153. ISBN 0-19-511675-5. ] .What makes this opposition to Ali’s Quran possibly true is political and social positions that his rivals were holding at the time. we can see similar events happened to “Abdullah Ibn Masud ” , ” Salim”(the freed slave),and others.
Ali’s version of the Quran contained verses that are not seen in the Uthmanic version of Quran that exists today. There were changes in the order of verses and suras, variant readings, tabdil, exchange of words such as umma to imma, rearrangement or deletion of words related to the right of Ali as the first caliph.[ Leaman, Oliver (2006). “Ali”. The Qur’an: an Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. pp. 30–31. ISBN 0-415-32639-7. ]
Regarding these differences and extra verses scholar Abu al-Qasim al-Khu’i[ أبو القاسم الخوئي ] believes that even if Ali’s Quran contains extra verses that are not part of the existing Uthmanic version of Quran.According to Al-Khu’i this does not mean that neccesarily these additions were parts of the Quran and have been dropped from it due to alteration. Rather, these additions could be interpretations or explanations of what God was saying, or were in the form of revelations from God, explaining the intention of the verses in the Quran. [ Al-Khu’i, Al-Sayyid (1998). The Prolegomena to the Qur’an. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 154–155. ISBN 0-19-511675-5. ]