HOW ISLAM SPREAD IN INDONESIA

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“Spreading Islam in Indonesia at first was all about business and profit there was not Divine will,spiritual power ,peaceful message or etc..It was the same exact policy and motivation that Muhammad chose to spread his new religion and boost his income”

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When we talk to Muslims about how Islam violently spread its influence all over the world one of the cases that they bring up to show how Islam peacefully was accepted is “Indonesia” and how they peacefully converted to Islam.Here is very short review about the history of Islam in South East Asia.
Islam began to spread in” The Malay Archipelago” region through trade [how trade and other major factors such as military power, Dominant rich kingdoms,bloody wars in the 15th century between Muslim Sultanates and Hindu kingdom,role of Jizeyah etc.. helped to spread Islam will be explained later in this article ] when Muslim merchants (Malik Deenar) settled in “Kerala” by the 7th century and consequently Muslim towns and kingdoms were created. the most important of these kingdoms was the Sultanate of Malacca (Melaka in Malay).Era of powerful Sultanate[mainly Iskender Shah] (Mid 1400) was the peak of rise of Islam and that was tied up to strong trading activities . which helped Arab merchants took Islam to new lands.
[ http://lostislamichistory.com/sultanate-of-malacca/ ]
Some give credit to Sufi merchants and preachers for bringing Islam to Indonesian islands in the 12th or 13th century either from Gujarat in India or directly from the Middle East [ Nina Nurmila. Jajat Burhanudin, Kees van Dijk, ed. Islam in Indonesia: Contrasting Images and Interpretations. Amsterdam University Press. p. 109. ]
There are many evidences that show Islam spread with faster rate in the 15th century, when the military power of Melaka Sultanate in Malay Peninsula( today Malaysia) and other Islamic Sultanates dominated the region inspired by Muslim coup such as in 1446 and superior control of maritime trading and larger ultimate markets.
When “Bayezid I”Ottoman sultan died , civil war broke out between his 5 sons (1402–1413) .[Dimitris J. Kastritsis, The Sons of Bayezid: Empire Building and Representation in the Ottoman. Civil War of 1402-1413, Brill, 2007, ISBN 978-90-04-15836-8., xi.].Though one of the sons “Mehmed” was supported and appointed by “Timur”[ a Central Asian warlord] as sultan his other 4 brothers opposed and each of them claimed to be the authority .Finally Civil war was over and Mehmed’s last brother (Musa)captured and strangled [ Nicol, Donald MacGillivray, The last centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453, (Cambridge University Press, 1972), 327. ]Mehmed as the sole surviving son of the late Sultan Bayezid became “Sultan Mehmed I”and restored the Ottman empire[ Fine, John Van Antwerp, The Late Medieval Balkans, (University of Michigan Press, 1994), 499. ].His civil war became the best example of the fratricide that later became common in Ottoman successions.
He restored Ottoman rule between the Danube and the Euphrates, driving out Christian influences,enforced his policy ,and his efforts were followed by Murad II and Mehmed II “the Conqueror” (Fâtih) from 1421 to 1481. [this policy strongly enforced direct Ottoman administration in both Europe and Anatolia in place of the indirect rule through Christian vassals from the previous century.]
[Imber, Colin, The Ottoman Empire. London: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2002. ISBN 0-333-61387-2]
[Audrey Kahin (2015). Historical Dictionary of Indonesia. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-0-8108-7456-5. ]
[M.C. Ricklefs (2008). A History of Modern Indonesia Since C.1200. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 17–19, 22, 34–42. ISBN 978-1-137-05201-8. ]
The kings of the trading kingdoms around Malacca Straits found that being Muslim helped them to boost their business ,attract traders from the strong Ottoman empire,India, and kingdoms of Malabar coast.Abundance of precious spices such as nutmeg, cloves, galangal,Lemon grass and many other spices was best opprtunity to get rich .
[http://gernot-katzers-spice-pages.com/engl/spice_geo.html#asia_southeast ]
[ Kitāb al Masālik w’al Mamālik (The Book of Roads and Kingdoms) By Ibn Khordadbeh ]
[ Isabella Bird (9 January 2014). "1”. Korea and Her Neighbours.: A Narrative of Travel, with an Account of the Recent Vicissitudes and Present Position of the Country. With a Preface by Sir Walter C. Hillier. Adegi Graphics LLC. ISBN 978-0-543-01434-4. ]
Overall military power and Dominant rich kingdoms such as ” Mataram” in Central Java, sultanates of “Ternate and Tidore” in the Maluku Islands and military victory and spread of Ottman Empire were some of the main factors in spreading Islam in south East Asia .
After Muslim Sultanates and Hindu kingdom bloody wars in the 15th century Buddhism and Hinduism were extincted in major Islands of Indonesia and some places such as Bali became refuge for Hindus from different Islands.
[ [ Robert Pringle (2010). Understanding Islam in Indonesia: Politics and Diversity. University of Hawaiʻi Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-0-8248-3415-9. ]r> [ [ I. Gusti Putu Phalgunadi (1991). Evolution of Hindu Culture in Bali: From the Earliest Period to the Present Time. Bali Indonesia: Prakashan. pp. vii, 57–59. ISBN 978-81-85067-65-0. ]r> [ [ Audrey Kahin (2015). Historical Dictionary of Indonesia. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-0-8108-7456-5.]r> The “Shafi’i “school of thought was taught by” Ibn Battuta”, a Moroccan traveller, in 1346 ,that later dominated Indonesia.
Influences of Zheng He’s voyages (a Chinese citizen, originally called “Ma He”, a Hui court eunuch ) who later settled Chinese Muslims around ” Palembang “encouraged them to take local names and started teaching the “Hanafi “school.
[ [ AQSHA, DARUL (13 July 2010). "Zheng He and Islam in Southeast Asia”. The Brunei Times. Retrieved 28 September 2012. ]r> Around 14-15 century economic and political stability and necessity ended to mass conversion.
As common practice In kingdom, if the king or head of state was Muslim then the citizens must also be Muslim . After many years of paying “ jizya” for not being Muslim, finally they decided to convert to Islam in order to stop paying Jizya.
[ Ib[ Ibn Battuta. Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354 (trans. by Gibb, 1969), p. 274. ] converting to Islam had a lot of benefits and better treatments more than being non Muslim.It brought security and safety for the people when they converted.
[ A.[ A. Mukti Ali. Islam in Indonesia in Handbook of Oriental Studies: Section 3, Southeast Asia (Lieberman & Ricklefs, 1975), pp. 58-59. ] As a historical common practice under Islamic belief of multiplication in 1960 the fertility rate in Indonesia was 5.67 children per woman.[ ht[ https://knoema.com/atlas/Indonesia/Fertility-rate ] resulted to explosion of population,and this became another core reason for high Muslim population.
For many of these timelines you van click here>>
” Sejarah Nusantara pada era kerajaan Islam – Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia ”
[htt[https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sejarah_Nusantara_pada_era_kerajaan_Islam ] 16th-17th century was the beginning of Colonialism. Portuguese took over Malacca ,Dutch took over Banten and became main colonist in the area where now is called Indonesia and Majapahit was slowly disolved and faded away.Spanish and Portuguese were looking for gold,glory &Gospel but Dutch as professional traders were after just profit and they had nothing to do with mass conversion to Christianity.They left Islam alone because for them it was more beneficial to rule economically stable colonies and that was already proved to be possible under Islam and all Muslim trade connections .Very limited people converted to Christianity.
Spreading Islam in Indonesia at first was all about business and profit there was not Divine will,spiritual power ,peaceful message or etc..It was the same exact policy and motivation that Muhammad chose to spread his new religion and boost his income . For the sake of business and profit He was in a full agreement with pagans and idol worshipers.With that motivation in mind he came up with idea that ” among all those 360+ idols Allah the moon god[The[The god of his tribe Qraish]not only the highest god, he is the only creator , that way he could get more visitors,attract more travellers and bring more income. Muhammad’s pagan origin is disclosed by Hisham ibn al-Kalbi[ 73[ 737 AD> 819 AD, ابن الكلبي‎‎ ھشام ]> In another case On page 17 of his important work, Kitab al-Asnam [ ك[ كـتـاب الأصـنـام The Book of Idols ]rites :
“We have been told that the Apostle of God once mentioned al-Uzza saying, “I have offered a white sheep to al-‘Uzza, while I was a follower of the religion of my people.”. [Al [Al Uzza,Al Azza, العزى‎‎ ] we know that Al-Uzza was one of the daughters of Allah.
By offering the white sheep he tried to show his unity with followers of Allah’s daughter (Al UZZA )that means more financial sources for him , at the same time he did not want to lose the sources from his own tribe that is why he continued saying:” while I was a follower of the religion of my people. ”
[[Al[[Al Uzza[ العزى‎‎ ]er on appeared in ” Ibn Ishaq”[ا[ابن إسحاق ]t Rasul Allah [س[سيرة رسول الله ]p. 165-167 and in satanic verses[ [ "Gharaniq incident ” ]ran verses 53:19>>23/22:53/ Al-Hadis. Volume 4, Book 54, No.516/ Al-Hadis. Volume 4, Book 54, No. 513/ Al-Hadis. Volume 3, page 803/ Al-Hadis, Volume 4 page 367 )]]
Even in the case of Khadijeh (his first wife)Though historians tried hard to convince people that she believed in God yet The early sources state otherwise. She did not believe in God and kept in her house an idol of Al-Uzza [ [Ahm[ [Ahmed ibn Hanbal, Musnad vol. 4 p. 222. Cited in Margoliouth, D. S. (1905). Mohammed and the Rise of Islam, 3rd Ed., p. 70. London: G. P. Putnam’s Sons. ]hammad had no problem with that.
In 605 when a sever flood damaged Ka’aba ,Muhammad did not have any objection when he reconstructed Ka’aba and rehoused “Black stone, and 360+ idols.[ Isha[ Ishaq:38 ]q:39 :Those who prayed to Al-Uzza and Manat, “shaved their heads and completed all of the rites associated with the Hajj.”[as th[as they still are doing the same] For more details click here more >>
[ http[ http://www.apartheidsharia.com/muhammad-idol-worshipingand-business/ ]ack then what Muhammad did was a common practice to built stronger economy, later on down the history Dutch did it again. Later on with Europeans in charge new generations adopted Islam to get more powerful patrons and they had no reason to return to previous beliefs.

SECOND STAGE OF MASS CONVERSION:

The last “mass conversion” to Islam in Indonesia was during the fall of Communist Party in 1965. There were massive and brutal murders of Communist Party members in late 1960s.
The jargon was that “Communists were Atheists and Atheists were Communists”The only way for the people to be safe and cleared off the situation at the time was that they stick to Islam and pretend to be Muslim .The whole situation ended to expanded Muslim population to today’s 86%.
[ Rick[ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia 1200-2004. London: MacMillan. p. 288][ http[ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesian_mass_killings_of_1965%E2%80%931966 ]y the end of October, groups of devout Muslims joined the purge of Communists claiming it was their duty to cleanse Indonesia of atheism.
[Varin[Varindra Tarzie Vittachi ” The fall of Sukarno.” London, Deutsch, 1967.p,138]p>And this was the story of Indonesia  and the peaceful conversion to Islam

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