MUHAMMAD’S MISSION :ERADICATION OF JEWS AND CHRISTIANS FROM ARABIAN PENINSULA

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Through the Hadiths, Prophet Muhammad established a practice that in an Islamic state, no non-Islamic religion should be allowed to exist. During his lifetime and particularly, after the victory of Mecca, in 630 AD, the Prophet was adamant to exterminate the Jews and Christians, Pagans and other disbelievers of Islam from Arabia as evident below:
=() (Muwatta, 1583, p. 371) Umar b. ‘Abd al’ Aziz reported that the last statement made by the apostle of Allah was: “O Lord, Perish the Jews and Christians. They made churches of the graves of their Prophets. Beware, there should be no two faiths in Arabia.” this hadith is perfectly correct and Sahih and it is based on this verse of Quran:(9:30)وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ عُزَيْرٌ ابْنُ اللَّهِ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَى الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ اللَّهِ ۖ ذَٰلِكَ قَوْلُهُمْ بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ ۖ يُضَاهِئُونَ قَوْلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ قَبْلُ ۚ قَاتَلَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۚ أَنَّىٰ يُؤْفَكُونَ” Sahih International: The Jews say, “Ezra is the son of Allah “; and the Christians say, “The Messiah is the son of Allah.” That is their statement from their mouths; they imitate the saying of those who disbelieved [before them]. May Allah destroy them; how are they deluded?[ http://corpus.quran.com/translation.jsp?chapter=9&verse=30 ] and this verse indicates how much tolerance Muhammad had towards people (Christians and Jews) who had just different views than him.
=() Ishaq: 327 – Allah said, “A prophet must slaughter before collecting captives. A slaughtered enemy is driven from the land. Muhammad, you craved the desires of this world, its goods and the ransom captives would bring. But Allah desires killing them to manifest the religion.”
=() Muslim :: Book 41 : Hadith 6985
Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will fight against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim, or the servant of Allah, there is a Jew behind me; come and kill him; but the tree Gharqad would not say, for it is the tree of the Jews.
=()Muslim 19,4364
“…. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) turned out all the Jews of Medlina. Banu Qainuqa’ (the tribe of ‘Abdullah b. Salim) and the Jews of Banu Haritha and every other Jew who was in Medina. …..”
=()” كتاب الجهاد والسير “Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihaad)
(176)Chapter: Can one intercede for the Dhimmi or deal with them?”باب هَلْ يُسْتَشْفَعُ إِلَى أَهْلِ الذِّمَّةِ وَمُعَامَلَتِهِمْ”
=() Muslim 19, Hadith 4366
It has been narrated by ‘Umar b. al-Khattib that he heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say:
I will expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and will not leave any but Muslim.”
” وَحَدَّثَنِي زُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا الضَّحَّاكُ بْنُ مَخْلَدٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ، ح وَحَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ رَافِعٍ، – وَاللَّفْظُ لَهُ – حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ جُرَيْجٍ، أَخْبَرَنِي أَبُو الزُّبَيْرِ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ جَابِرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، يَقُولُ أَخْبَرَنِي عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ” لأُخْرِجَنَّ الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى مِنْ جَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِ حَتَّى لاَ أَدَعَ إِلاَّ مُسْلِمًا ” . ”
=() Sahih al-Bukhari 3053
In-book reference: Book 56, Hadith 259
USC-MSA web (English) reference: Vol. 4, Book 52, Hadith 288
Narrated Said bin Jubair:
Ibn
Abbas said, “…….. The Prophet (ﷺ) on his death-bed, gave three orders saying, “Expel the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, respect and give gifts to the foreign delegates as you have seen me dealing with them.” I forgot the third (order)” (Ya’qub bin Muhammad said, “I asked Al-Mughira bin `Abdur-Rahman about the Arabian Peninsula and he said, ‘It comprises Mecca, Medina, Al-Yama-ma and Yemen.” Ya’qub added, “And Al-Arj, the beginning of Tihama.”)
“…. وَأَوْصَى عِنْدَ مَوْتِهِ بِثَلاَثٍ ” أَخْرِجُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ مِنْ جَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِ، وَأَجِيزُوا الْوَفْدَ بِنَحْوِ مَا كُنْتُ أُجِيزُهُمْ “. وَنَسِيتُ الثَّالِثَةَ. وَقَالَ يَعْقُوبُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ سَأَلْتُ الْمُغِيرَةَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ جَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِ. فَقَالَ مَكَّةُ وَالْمَدِينَةُ وَالْيَمَامَةُ وَالْيَمَنُ. وَقَالَ يَعْقُوبُ وَالْعَرْجُ أَوَّلُ تِهَامَةَ. …..”
=() Sahih al-Bukhari Vol. 4, Book 52, Hadith 176
al-Bukhari Book of Jihaad #176
al-Bukhari 2925
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar:
Allah’s Apostle said, “You (i.e. Muslims) will fight wi the Jews till some of them will hide behind stones. The stones will (betray them) saying, ‘O ‘Abdullah (i.e. slave of Allah)! There is a Jew hiding behind me; so kill him.’ ”
” حَدَّثَنَا إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ الْفَرْوِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ
” تُقَاتِلُونَ الْيَهُودَ حَتَّى يَخْتَبِيَ أَحَدُهُمْ وَرَاءَ الْحَجَرِ فَيَقُولُ يَا عَبْدَ اللَّهِ هَذَا يَهُودِيٌّ وَرَائِي فَاقْتُلْهُ “. ”

=() Muwatta Malik » Madina
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 45, Hadith 18
Arabic reference : Book 45, Hadith 1618
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Two deens shall not co-exist in the Arabian Peninsula.”
Malik said that Ibn Shihab said, ”Umar ibn al-Khattab searched for information about that until he was absolutely convinced that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had said, ‘Two deens shall not co-exist in the Arabian Peninsula,’ and he therefore expelled the jews from Khaybar.”
Malik said, ”Umar ibn al-Khattab expelled the jews from Najran (a jewish settlement in the Yemen) and Fadak (a jewish settlement thirty miles from Madina). When the jews of Khaybar left, they did not take any fruit or land. The jews of Fadak took half the fruit and half the land, because the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had made a settlement with them for that. So Umar entrusted to them the value in gold, silver, camels, ropes and saddle bags of half the fruit and half the land, and handed the value over to them and expelled them.”

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ” لاَ يَجْتَمِعُ دِينَانِ فِي جَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِ ” . قَالَ مَالِكٌ قَالَ ابْنُ شِهَابٍ فَفَحَصَ عَنْ ذَلِكَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ حَتَّى أَتَاهُ الثَّلْجُ وَالْيَقِينُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ” لاَ يَجْتَمِعُ دِينَانِ فِي جَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِ ” فَأَجْلَى يَهُودَ خَيْبَرَ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَقَدْ أَجْلَى عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ يَهُودَ نَجْرَانَ وَفَدَكَ فَأَمَّا يَهُودُ خَيْبَرَ فَخَرَجُوا مِنْهَا لَيْسَ لَهُمْ مِنَ الثَّمَرِ وَلاَ مِنَ الأَرْضِ شَىْءٌ وَأَمَّا يَهُودُ فَدَكَ فَكَانَ لَهُمْ نِصْفُ الثَّمَرِ وَنِصْفُ الأَرْضِ لأَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ صَالَحَهُمْ عَلَى نِصْفِ الثَّمَرِ وَنِصْفِ الأَرْضِ فَأَقَامَ لَهُمْ عُمَرُ نِصْفَ الثَّمَرِ وَنِصْفَ الأَرْضِ قِيمَةً مِنْ ذَهَبٍ وَوَرِقٍ وَإِبِلٍ وَحِبَالٍ وَأَقْتَابٍ ثُمَّ أَعْطَاهُمُ الْقِيمَةَ وَأَجْلاَهُمْ مِنْهَا
=() Jami` at-Tirmidhi 1607
In-book reference : Book 21, Hadith 70
English translation : Vol. 3, Book 19, Hadith 1607
Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah :
“Umar bin Al-Khattab informed me that he heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say: ‘I will expel the Jews and the Christians from the Arabian Peninsula, and I will not leave anyone in it except a Muslim.”
[Abu ‘Eisa said:] This Hadith is Hasan Sahih.
حَدَّثَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ الْخَلاَّلُ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَاصِمٍ، وَعَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، قَالاَ أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ جُرَيْجٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي أَبُو الزُّبَيْرِ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ جَابِرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، يَقُولُ أَخْبَرَنِي عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ” لأُخْرِجَنَّ الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى مِنْ جَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِ فَلاَ أَتْرُكُ فِيهَا إِلاَّ مُسْلِمًا ” . قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ .

=()Jamiat-Tirmidhi 1606
In-book reference : Book 21, Hadith 69
English translation : Vol. 3, Book 19, Hadith 1606
Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab:
That the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "If I live - if Allah wills - I will expel the Jews and the Christians from the Arabian Peninsula."
حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الْكِنْدِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا زَيْدُ بْنُ الْحُبَابِ، أَخْبَرَنَا سُفْيَانُ الثَّوْرِيُّ، عَنْ أَبِي الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ جَابِرٍ، عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ " لَئِنْ عِشْتُ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لأُخْرِجَنَّ الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى مِنْ جَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِ " .
=() al-Bukhari 2478
al-Bukhari Vol. 3, Book 43, Hadith 658
Narrated 'Abdullah bin Masud:
The Prophet entered Mecca and (at that time) there were three hundred-and-sixty idols around the Ka'ba. He started stabbing the idols with a stick he had in his hand and reciting: "Truth (Islam) has come and Falsehood (disbelief) has vanished."
=()Bukhari
In-book reference Book 23, Hadith 123
Reference Sahih al-Bukhari 1370
USC-MSA web (English) reference Vol. 2, Book 23, Hadith 452
Narrated Ibn
Umar:
The Prophet (ﷺ) looked at the people of the well (the well in which the bodies of the pagans killed in the Battle of Badr were thrown) and said, “Have you found true what your Lord promised you?” Somebody said to him, “You are addressing dead people.” He replied, “You do not hear better than they but they cannot reply.”
حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، حَدَّثَنَا يَعْقُوبُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي، عَنْ صَالِحٍ، حَدَّثَنِي نَافِعٌ، أَنَّ ابْنَ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ أَخْبَرَهُ قَالَ اطَّلَعَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى أَهْلِ الْقَلِيبِ فَقَالَ ” وَجَدْتُمْ مَا وَعَدَ رَبُّكُمْ حَقًّا “. فَقِيلَ لَهُ تَدْعُو أَمْوَاتًا فَقَالَ ” مَا أَنْتُمْ بِأَسْمَعَ مِنْهُمْ وَلَكِنْ لاَ يُجِيبُونَ “.

=() Sahih al-Bukhari Vol. 4, Book 53, Hadith 393
al-Bukhari Book of One-fifth of Booty #393
al-Bukhari 3168
“…. Prophet ordered them to do three things saying, ‘Turn out all the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, …….”
“….. فَأَمَرَهُمْ بِثَلاَثٍ قَالَ ـ أَخْرِجُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ مِنْ جَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِ، وَ …..”
=()Dawud :: Book 14 : Hadith 2478
Narrated Imran ibn Husayn:
The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: A section of my community will continue to fight for the right and overcome their opponents till the last of them fights with the Antichrist.
=() Bulugh al-Maram( بلوغ المرام )
English reference : Book 11, Hadith 1341
Arabic reference : Book 11, Hadith 1315
’Umar (RAA) narrated, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say, “I will certainly expel the Jews and the Christians from the Arabian Peninsula so as to leave only Muslims in it.” Reported by Muslim.
” وَعَنْ عُمَرَ – رضى الله عنه – أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ – صلى الله عليه وسلم -يَقُولُ: { ” لَأَخْرِجَنَّ اَلْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى مِنْ جَزِيرَةِ اَلْعَرَبِ, حَتَّى لَا أَدَعَ إِلَّا مُسْلِماً” } رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ”
=() (Muwatta, 1583, p. 371) Umar b. ‘Abd al’ Aziz reported that the last statement made by the apostle of Allah was: “O Lord, Perish the Jews and Christians. They made churches of the graves of their Prophets. Beware, there should be no two faiths in Arabia.”
=() Muwatta, 1589, p. 371). In the foot note (no 461) Malik writes “Umar made enquiries about this hadith, and when satisfied, he expelled Jews from Khaiber, Fadak and Najiran.” (ibid, p. 371)
=() Muwatta Malik » Madina
USC-MSA web (English) reference : Book 45, Hadith 18
Arabic reference : Book 45, Hadith 1618
” Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Two deens shall not co-exist in the Arabian Peninsula.”
Malik said that Ibn Shihab said, ”Umar ibn al-Khattab searched for information about that until he was absolutely convinced that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had said, ‘Two deens shall not co-exist in the Arabian Peninsula,’ and he therefore expelled the jews from Khaybar.”
Malik said, ”Umar ibn al-Khattab expelled the jews from Najran (a jewish settlement in the Yemen) and Fadak (a jewish settlement thirty miles from Madina). When the jews of Khaybar left, they did not take any fruit or land. The jews of Fadak took half the fruit and half the land, because the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had made a settlement with them for that. So Umar entrusted to them the value in gold, silver, camels, ropes and saddle bags of half the fruit and half the land, and handed the value over to them and expelled them. ”
“وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ” لاَ يَجْتَمِعُ دِينَانِ فِي جَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِ ” . قَالَ مَالِكٌ قَالَ ابْنُ شِهَابٍ فَفَحَصَ عَنْ ذَلِكَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ حَتَّى أَتَاهُ الثَّلْجُ وَالْيَقِينُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ” لاَ يَجْتَمِعُ دِينَانِ فِي جَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِ ” فَأَجْلَى يَهُودَ خَيْبَرَ . قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَقَدْ أَجْلَى عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ يَهُودَ نَجْرَانَ وَفَدَكَ فَأَمَّا يَهُودُ خَيْبَرَ فَخَرَجُوا مِنْهَا لَيْسَ لَهُمْ مِنَ الثَّمَرِ وَلاَ مِنَ الأَرْضِ شَىْءٌ وَأَمَّا يَهُودُ فَدَكَ فَكَانَ لَهُمْ نِصْفُ الثَّمَرِ وَنِصْفُ الأَرْضِ لأَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ صَالَحَهُمْ عَلَى نِصْفِ الثَّمَرِ وَنِصْفِ الأَرْضِ فَأَقَامَ لَهُمْ عُمَرُ نِصْفَ الثَّمَرِ وَنِصْفَ الأَرْضِ قِيمَةً مِنْ ذَهَبٍ وَوَرِقٍ وَإِبِلٍ وَحِبَالٍ وَأَقْتَابٍ ثُمَّ أَعْطَاهُمُ الْقِيمَةَ وَأَجْلاَهُمْ مِنْهَا .”
=() Bukhari Vol. 4, Book 52, Hadith 267
al-Bukhari 3027 3028
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, “Khosrau will be ruined, and there will be no Khosrau after him, and Caesar will surely be ruined and there will be no Caesar after him, and you will spend their treasures in Allah’s Cause.” He called, “War is deceit’.
[al-Bukhari 3120 /al-Bukhari Vol. 4, Book 53, Hadith 349]
[al-Bukhari 3121/al-Bukhari Vol. 4, Book 53, Hadith 350 ]
[Muslim Book of Faith (Kitab Al-Iman) #293/Muslim 156/Sahih Muslim Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 293]
[Muslim 1921 b/Muslim Vol. 5, Book 20, Hadith 4716]
[ Muslim, Vol. 1:293 ]

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