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Assuming that the Black Stone( الحجر الأسود‎) is missing for one reason or another, does it render the Tawaf and Pilgrimage invalid and void on such account? Absolutely not. This is exactly what has already happened in the history of Islam.
The Karamathians (Arabic: al-Qaramitah ” قرامطة‎ “)are members of the Shi’ite Muslim sect, They flourished in Iraq, Yemen, and especially Bahrain during the 9th to 11th centuries, taking their name from Hamdan Qarmat, who led the sect in southern Iraq in the second half of the 9th century .They are most famed for their revolt against the Abbasid Caliphate . Abu Tahir Sulayman (906–944),one of the leaders of the sect invaded Iraq several times and in 930 sacked Mecca ,killing people(well over 30000 people) and chanting verses of Quran( Heinz Halm, 1996, The Empire of the Mahdi: The Rise of the Fatimids Brill, p.255-6 )looted Ka’bah and carried off the Black Stone of the Ka’bah( Mecca’s History, from Encyclopædia Britannica ) and desecration of the Well of Zamzam with corpses during the Hajj season of 930 CE.( Houari Touati, Islam and Travel in the Middle Ages, transl. Lydia G. Cochrane, (University of Chicago Press, 2010), 60. )He Went over the top of the Kaaba and Said: ”I am in God and God is in Me.Where is Your God? I am your Great God. Where are the Birds of God (Tayr al ababeel)[ طَيْرًا أَبَابِيلَ ] that Protect the Kaaba? Where are the Stones of Fire (Hijara min sejeel)[ حِجَارَةٍ مِنْ سِجِّيلٍ]?”. Muslims were Dying and they were in the Protection of Allah and Next to His House, and they were believing that God would send His Birds of Hell to throw them with stones of Fire, and Yet not a bird came,black rock was stolen and urinated upon and nothing happened.
[ http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=99M0zoSqsF0C&pg=PA317&lpg=PA317&dq=abu+tahir+al-qarmati&source=bl&ots=Y0cVhKZpLn&sig=hI_MwXyJKkF-n4-v-V0FmfphNUk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=EyW5UY6vKNC20QX6kIDoCA&ved=0CFQQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=abu%20tahir%20al-qarmati&f=false ]
They carried it away with them to their territory in Al-Ahsa (in the Arabian Gulf)..While the black stone was with Abu Tahir, He Urinated on it repeatedly and After keeping it there for twenty years, they had return it back to Mecca in the year 339 AH (see shorter Encyclopedia Leiden 1953, P. 219). In such an event, the Shari’ah (Law) maintains that the pilgrim shall perform his Tawaf without the Black stone. Instead of the Black Stone, the pilgrim shall touch its place at the corner of the Ka’bah, or point at its spot, and continue his Tawaf. Thus the total absence of the Stone itself makes no difference in the validity of the Tawaf and the Pilgrimage.
This shows how tiny a part is being played by this stone. How ignorant of others and how childish, therefore, sounds the charge that it is one of the “most Precious Idol preserved by Islam”!
1)History of Islam(Tarikh al-Islam al-kabir ) – Aldahabi,[ USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts ] {{ https://www.lib.umn.edu/indexes/moreinfo?id=14295 }}
2)Sirah of the Nobles( Siyar A`lam Al-Nubala’i ) – Aldahabi, [In Arabic Published by Dar Al-Hadith
{{ http://kitaabun.com/shopping3/product_info.php?products_id=2643 }}
there might be some part of this book on line(though need tranlstion service)
In English:Publisher: Mu®assasat al-Risalah (1981)
3)Beginning and End( al-Bidayah wa’an-Nihayah ) – Ibn Kathir
4)The Perfect in History( Al-Kāmil fī al-tārīkh ) – Ibn Al Atheer,(Arab historian){{http://www.worldcat.org/title/kamil-fi-al-tarikh/oclc/28060694 }}
5)The Bright Stars( Nujum al-zahira ) – Ibn Taghribirdi ,
6)Grace of the black stone and the Standing place of Ibrahim – Sa’ed Bakdash,
7)Destruction of Kaaba – Mohammad shibani,
8)Wakafat tarbawiya ma sirah nabawiya -Mohamad fareed.)

Author Name is Option.
Ex Muslim MSL

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